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Advanced Polymer Solutions New York
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Advanced Polymer Solutions
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Sometimes two or more layers of various materials are laminated
together to achieve desired characteristics. A generic adhesive used
for all purpose applications may fail especially when temperature
changes occur. Again, these conventional adhesives hold their
substrates together by mechanical means. In addition, failure of the
bond will occur during temperature fluctuations due to differences in
coefficients of thermal expansion. The adhesives developed by APS
use Bifunctional monomers and attach themselves to the substrates
by a helical bond. This helix allows the resultant bond to move with
the differences in the expansion and contraction rates of the
substrates. Even substrates that are typically difficult to bond are
activated and attached by this means.
The Mechanism of Chemical Grafting

Advanced Polymer Solutions substrate activators
have the unique capacity of removing active
hydrogens from substrates and initiating the
growth of polymer chains at the site.( In the case
of adhesives both substrates are activated. ) By
removing these hydrogens an electron is removed
forming a free radical. This free radical site needs
an electron to stabilize its site and will share the
electron with the present monomers forming the
chemical bond. The following represents the four
step chemical grafting process:

1)        Activation: free radical formation
substrate activator
MOH_________  MC*

2)        Chemical Bonding of monomers:
(CH2 — CH)n
x        x = functional group that changes with
each monomer and determines the property

3)        Formation of small polymer side chains: n =
chain length of monomers (same or varied)

4)        The reaction is then terminated with a
specific formulation ingredient so that all reactive
components are

Our monomers can be added to the resin or
developed as a
This method, where a "foreign" material becomes attached to another
materi¬al by means of a chemical bond is referred to as "chem¬ical
grafting." One example is the production of
acrylo¬nitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin obtained by the direct
grafting of styrene-acrylonitrile on a polybutadi¬ene backbone. This
often is achieved by the polymer¬ization of styrene and acrylonitrile in
the presence of butadiene. The grafting gives the ABS the ability to
resist blows by impact.

Chemical grafting might be visualized as the growth of "whiskers" onto
a material. These whiskers are joined to the basic material (which is
referred to as the substrate) by means of a chemical bond. This is in
direct contradistinction to ordinary "coatings" where the bond between
the substrate and the coating is only physical in nature. By chemical
grafting a much higher degree of adhesion is achievable.

Covalent Bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of
electron pairs between atoms.
Read More>
A covalent bond forming H2 (right) where two hydrogen atoms
share the two electrons. Wikipedia
APS chemists have extensive experience in
bonding the same or different substrates
together. Materials that are difficult to adhere to
are effectively bonded with APS' process. Again,
no or minimal surface chemical attachment of
one substrate to the other.
Consequently, substrate failure will occur before
adhesion failure. In addition, if two substrates
with different coefficients of thermal expansion
are bonded, an APS developed adhesive's
bonding action will not be affected. Such is not
the case with conventional adhesives which
cannot withstand thevarying expansion and
contraction of different substrates.

Product Solutions Tell us about the problem you are experiencing with your substrate or production process  and we will
respond with solutions for your evaluation. Chemical Grafting can effectively reduce production cost.
Our typical response time is less then 48 hours.

Adhesives - Covalant Bonding